International Summit on

Anthropological, Cultural and Sociological Studies

Day - 1

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Plenary Keynote
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Burnished Ornamentalism:Making Sense of History, Iconography and the Visual Cultural Practices of Postcolonial Elite Schools in Globalizing Circumstances


   Cameron Mccarthy
   University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

This paper addresses the matter of the management and conservation of histories (“burnished ornamentalism”) in three school sites: in Barbados, India and Singapore respectively. These schools form part of a 5-year, 9-country study of postcolonial elite schools in globalizing circumstances—a flash point of articulation between these schools and profound change. The presentation turns on this fundamental fact: that these schools, which are the products of societies marked historically by colonial and imperial encounters, are now driven forward by new energies associated with marketization, neoliberalism and globalization as these countries lurch forward unevenly towards a postdevelopmental era. This turn towards neoliberal globalization has precipitated radically new needs, interests, desires, capacities and competitive logics among the middle class and upwardly-mobile young and their parents in each of these societies that then press powerfully onto these elite schools and they cultivated pasts as they reside in school anthems, flags, emblems, banners and rituals of assembly, formal dress and decorum. All of this is taking place in the glow of digitalization as these schools increasingly move online locating themselves in photo and video-sharing websites such as YouTube, Facebook and Flicker as well as websites that each individual school is creating to consecrate school heritage. After offering a vignette that illustrates the new circumstances for postcolonial elite schools as they respond to global forces, I will discuss in some detail the changing context that heightens the importance of these schools' investment in the burnishing of school image and iconography in their negotiation of new transnational educational market.

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Plenary Keynote
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From Anthropology to Linguistics to Population Genetics (DNA): Reconstructing the origins of Latin America's Black populations


   Armin Schwegler
   University of California,
United States

Prior to 2010, reconstructing the precise sub-Saharan origins of descendants of African slaves in the Americas seemed like an impossible task. This was so for at least two reasons: (1) historical records of the transatlantic slave trade were haphazard, and (2) slaves had originated from so many parts of West Africa that specific speech communities in the New World were a priori thought to be the result of heavy ethno-linguistic intermixing. This keynote address explains how the past 25 years of research have dramatically reversed this former situation, so much so that today some Black speech communities (e.g., El Palenque, Colombia) can be traced to highly specific locations in Africa. Key to this discovery of “Africa roots” has been a multidisciplinary approach that combines anthropological evidence (gathered in the field) with linguistic and genetic (DNA) findings. A main goal of this talk is to demonstrate how this multi-pronged approach has progressed over a period of 30 years, and ultimately led to the the discovery of highly specific African roots.

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Keynote
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RE-ETHNISATION AS STRATEGY OF IDENTITY VISIBILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALISATION IN LATIN AMERICA


   P.A. Isla Monsalve
   Leiden University,
Netherlands

Since the end of the 20th century, ethnicity in Latin America has become a central element of various social and political movements. These movements are fighting for recognition of their differentiated cultural identity as a basis for their participation and visibility. In this way, culture and identity have become closely interwoven elements, which are difficult to distinguish today. The goals of such movement questioning the traditional identity discourses that the nationalism in each country had legitimated and essentialized. In the last decade a new component of ethnic identity has been developed: the rescue and revival of extinct indigenous cultures that ―through a new discursive elaborations― are part of the identity of new social groups. This is the case of de Diaguita community in Chile and Charrúa community in Uruguay. The presentation discussed in parallel both collectives, their discursive strategies, their reinterpretation of the official national history and the challenges of their emergence at the political and cultural level. Keywords: ethnisation, cultural identity, ethnic identity, Diaguita community, Charrúa community, indigenous culture

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Keynote
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Three Worlds of Human Living: Commonsense, Religion, and Science


   Victor N. Shaw
   Professor of Sociology, California State University-Northridge, United States

This paper explores three worlds of human living from commonsense to religion to science. The world of commonsense spreads outwardly to the boundary of human perceptions about nature, natural environments, material conditions, day-to-day living activities, and concrete surviving experiences. It is about how high the sky is or how expansive the ground becomes, whether winds blow off roofs or floods wash away crops, when the Sun rises after setting or the Moon comes back in full, where a creek joins a river down the stream or a sea reaches its shores on the other side, and what kind of life, difficult or comfortable, meager or bountiful, painful or pleasant, people lead in their time and place. The world of religion gravitates inwardly toward the abyss of human fear about fate, destiny, afterlife, and otherworld as well as the apex of human transcendence over reality, the mundane, the secular, and earthliness. It features evil, sin, punishment, condemnation, and suffering on the one hand and repentance, redemption, salvation, elevation, and blessing on the other. The world of science, in contrast, seems to both extend outside to find things, face facts and deepen inside to exercise intelligence, entertain rationality. With reliance upon inner abilities and outer evidence, the humans discover laws of existence, rules of commonsense, and reasons of faith or religiosity. The human world can hereby operate in order per predictability, control, and efficiency while life may thrive on material amenities with certainty, sufficiency, and effectiveness.

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Keynote
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Violence - Why is mental health classified as a disease ?


   Maria de Lourdes Beldi de Alcantar
   University of São Paulo- Medical Anthropology

The main aim of this study is to analyse mental health protocols applied in indigenous communities in Brazil, intending to expose the prevalence of biomedical hegemony, despite the “intercultural” narrative within the discourse. Among the many indigenous rights disrespected, here I highlight the lack of free, prior and informed consultation on the protocols and their application. We will be studying the behaviour of indigenous youth within the Dourados Reservation. The rate of violence among these youth has been on a steep incline, now exceeding the high rate of suicide within this population. Could it be that these same young people who were committing suicide are changing their practices of living in and experiencing the Dourados Reservation? How do they perceive themselves and how do they manage their lives? Could it be that this so-called violence practiced by them is a way of achieving respect and therefore a way in which they create links of respect and acceptance? We do not have an answer to this “new” reality that indigenous youth are creating, we only have hypotheses. Therefore this work is set out in a preliminary study on the living practices of young people within the Dourados Reservation to be able to propose, together with them, something other than a biomedical vision of violence.

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Keynote
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How Seneca Place-Based Knowledges Can Expand Anthropology's Arsenal


   Penelope Kelsey
   University of Colorado, USA

At the time that Major John Sullivan and DeWitt Clinton's troops reached Iroquoia, under orders from George Washington (Town Destroyer) to burn all neutral Six Nations towns, agricultural fields, orchards, and grain-stores to the ground, Seneca village life differed fundamentally from the colonists' social and geographic organization. Oriented around women's nation and clan identities, Seneca lands passed through the matriarch's lines to female children, and the agricultural fields and their sustainability practices were overseen by female heads of families. In fact, when a man married, he 'followed his wife,' by relocating to her village. The names for these villages reflected the women's roles and the complex environmental philosophy that informed their organization. By razing Iroquois territory, not only did the Continental Army ensure the near-starvation of those fleeing Haudenosaunee villages, these destructive acts also worked to sever Seneca ties to those places, their food-based knowledge, and the environmental ontology that their names reflect. This paper seeks to reconnect the ties between Senecas and others with these place-based epistemologies by illustrating how key examples of these toponyms, when analyzed in-depth, exemplify Seneca sustainability practices and environmental ontology principles. In doing so, this analysis provides a model for how Seneca place-based epistemes and their associated philosophy expand the disciplinary repertoire of anthropology.

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Keynote
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Sacred Sharing: Non-Jews address God at the Kotel in Jerusalem


   Shulamit Reinharz
   Jacob Potofsky Professor Emerita, Brandeis University

Among other topics, sociologists of religion study anomalies. This paper offers one example. Specifically, why do non-Jews engage in a Jewish ritual at Judaism's most sacred site, known in Hebrew as the Kotel [English, The Western Wall or Wailing Wall], located in the Old City section of Jerusalem? The Kotel derives its holy status among Jews from the fact that in ancient times, the wall buttressed the First and Second Temples that no longer exist. God was understood to dwell invisibly in the Temple. Religious Jews believe that at the Kotel, God's presence is still palpable and that their prayers before the Kotel ascend directly to God. Before the 1967 war, Jordan barred Jews from access to the Kotel. Now anyone who acts respectfully has access at all times. A visit to the Kotel has become almost mandatory for foreign leaders visiting Israel. The Kotel has also become a predictable stop for tourists and tourism companies. The latest survey (n =15,000) revealed that the majority of tourists to Israel are Christian (54.9 %) among whom the largest denomination is Catholic. Jerusalem is the most visited city in the country for tourists, with the Kotel attracting the lion's share (71.6%) of all tourists. For 300 years Jews have addressed God directly by inserting a Petek (or note) into the tiny spaces between the Kotel's hewn boulders. Workers remove these million plus notes twice a year to make room for the notes of future visitors. A large open plaza was created in front of the Kotel to accommodate crowds, but also allowing wind and rain to whip through the area. Moreover, some notes are placed too lightly. Thus, many notes fall to the ground. On several visits to the Kotel, I have scooped up some of these notes for study purposes using the “content analysis” method. My paper will address the content of these notes and will address the sociological significance of people from various faith groups joining in the Jewish practice of addressing God through these notes. I will then propose a concept – “sacred sharing” - to explore additional ways in which one faith group engaged in the practices of another and what this may mean.

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Oral
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Decolonizing for reconstructing. Engaging Anthropology on new pathways from the Global South


   Elieth EYEBIYI
   Social Anthropologist,Senegal

Decolonizing for recreating. Engaging Anthropology on new pathways from the South. In recent years, the future of anthropology, but also of the humanities and social sciences, has returned to the debate. While some parts of the world seem to be shining with the power of producing theories, others are relegated to a sort of experimental and auditing ground, devoting the Global North-South divide to the production of knowledge. As much as concepts and theories have a better audience when produced by the increasingly bureaucratic apparatuses of the Global North, the Global South is generally confined to the production of empirical data, particularly in anthropology. Today there is an asymmetry both in the production of theories and in the collection of evidence data; but also in teaching methods, the implementation of methods, the funding of research, etc. It is no exaggeration to note that the Global South remain gigantic fertile ground for contemporary anthropology, and more broadly the social sciences and humanities. These works are carried out by researchers of all nationalities, but generally based in the western countries where the most important structures of knowledge production are located today. Rebuilding the future of science, especially the social sciences and humanities and therefore of anthropology, passes on the one hand by a systematic decolonization of academic thought and knowledge; and on the other hand, by a constant dialogue between theories and terrains. This paper will underline the conditions under which a decolonization of the thought of contemporary anthropology to represent the future. We will discuss some levers on which it is necessary to act in order to rebalance Global North-South relations in the world of research, to make fluid the circulation of the concepts but also of the researchers, and especially to introduce more justice in the intellectual exchanges.

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Keynote
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Integration and Transnationalism: The case of african immigrants in spain.


   Papa Balla Ndong
   Vice president of Sietar Spain , University of Valencia, Spain

The complexity of migration poses a renewal of the problems related to it. We will reflect on the culture of migration beyond the reality of the host countries to highlight the profiles of the Spanish migration system and the interactor elements. Considering Spain as Southern Europe and its proximity to Africa. We will see integration from linear, dependent and reactive transnationalism to identify the positive relationship between integration and transnationalism. In this reflection we will highlight the disciples of Amadú Bamba Mourides of Senegal. It is a Sufi brotherhood that sanctifies work and from the dairas (cells) gives great consideration to the notions of solidarity and mutual help. In this sociocultural and spiritual organization of the African diaspora in Spain, we will also identify the Nigerian Igbos in their Yuca festival. A festival to celebrate new yuca crops, a way of giving thanks to the spirits, with traditional music and dance. It is only a traditional practice, but considered as a unifying factor for Igbo. We will see the phenomenon of the “mantero “and its disruption in the public space. Also the African associations that fight for their rights and the cost of this fight, making visible the mechanisms that promote social cohesion in the Valencian neighborhood. Ending we will question all these processes in order to identify practicals solutions.

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Oral
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Revitalizing the Study of Religion through the Conduit of Spirits within Anthropology


   John A. Napora
   Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, USA

Anthropology has been recreated continually throughout its history. In this paper, I shall focus on how one domain within sociocultural anthropology, the study of religion, can be. Though religion has been central to human societies for millennia and though it remains highly relevant for politics between and within nations, its study has been experiencing a period of relative neglect within the discipline. I argue that study of religion within anthropology needs to be reconceptualized consistent with how founding figures in the social sciences defined religion and consistent with the evidence for religious beliefs and practices from throughout the world's cultures. I will show how this can be done by reexamining peoples' conceptions and experiences with a variety of spirits and simultaneously how people are transformed by them. In this way, the study of religion may be revitalized. This may lead to religion again becoming a major field of inquiry within anthropology, and, much more importantly, reexamining the spiritual dimension of people's lives and its implications should provide a fuller conception of the human condition even while including the secularized Western world.

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Keynote
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Controlling violence: an economic integration skill in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa)


   Kouame Walter KRA
   Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University Alassane Ouattara, Ivory Coast

In order to control and capture the rents that emanate from them, the public transport hubs of Abidjan, the economic capital city of Côte d'Ivoire, undergo violence carried by groups of young people in search economic integration. This violence that has emerged in the context of a severe economic crisis, a battered economy and a pronounced poverty sounds like a response to jobs crisis and structural unemployment that characterizes it. These actors whose trajectories are marked with violence experiences seem to have transformed the aforesaid experiences into economic integration skill, like Z. Z's experience shows that actors in search of work resort to differential responses in a country where unemployment remains a structural problem. This unemployment is characterised by both a persistent mismatch between supply and demand for work and the absence of a real policy designed to absorb graduates, dropouts, or people without education and, most impor- tantly, ex-combatants and habitual criminals who aspire to integrate into the economic fabric. Above all, Z's experience shows that he and many other unionists and gnambros have come to de ne violence as a response to unemployment. This has led to the criminalisation of informal transport hubs across Abidjan. In its dynamics, this criminalisation has generated social transformations in the management of these disputed spaces, paving the way for a possible perpetuation of the phenomenon.

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Keynote
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The Bakola/Bagyeli of the cameroonian coastal region: an ethnography revisited


   Bernard Aristide BITOUGA
   Department of Anthropology, University of Douala, Cameroon

The Baka, Bakola/Bagyeli and Bedzang are considered the three main 'Pygmy'groups living in Cameroon. A review of the ethnological literature on Cameroon's forest peoples reveals that work on the Bakola/Bagyeli is sparse and very patchy. This paper aims to present this group of paleoafricans in the light of the social changes and transformations that have been affecting their way of life for two decades now. Based on data collected in the districts of Bipindi, Lododorf and Lokoundjé (ocean subdivision), the aim is to revisit and update existing information on this socio-culture.

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Keynote
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Perception of health indicators in the traditional chronic care supply market in Benin: comparative analysis of practices and social logics with bio-medicine


   MARIUS VIGNIGBE
   Department of Sociology-Anthropology, University of Abomey Calavi (UAC)

In Benin, despite the acceptable supply of health services(first-order health coverage of 93.1\%), the rate of hospital use is struggling to match the rate of coverage. Although this disaffection is an institutional constraint, it should be noted that local people perceive traditional medicine more as a factor in improving health and an appropriate endogenous response to disease management. Nevertheless, Benin's health profile remains characterized by high morbidity and mortality statistics (infant-juvenile mortality of 166.5 per thousand) mainly due to communicable and infectious diseases. This picture reflects a failure of the country's health policy, detrimental to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal N ° 3. This paper is a contribution to the analysis of social representations associated with health indicators, as perceived by actors in the traditional care market; this does not always get the approval of biomedical professionals, giving rise to ""breaks"". In other words, from a case study, we will be discussing for ourselves the therapeutic practices relating to the treatment of chronic diseases that have been found to be critical. It will also be a question of understanding, by the yardstick of sociocultural indicators, the underlying interpretative logics. Finally, we will make a comparative reading with the ""positive"" approach of biomedicine to highlight the methodological and epistemological differences.

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Day - 2

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Day - 3

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Poster

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Mountainous Region of Adjara, Georgia – Unique Food Tourism Destination


  Manana Vasadze
  Associate Professor,Georgian Technical University

Food Tourism can create a different view of a country: its culture and landscape. Food tourism makes "feel" the country. Gastronomic experience can stop and retrieve time; it is not just about feeding, it is also about entering into the culture of the nation. Adjara with its traditions, customs, dialects, folklore, folk animations is an important part of the united Georgian culture. Mountain and sea landscapes, picturesque nature and beautiful parks, delicious cuisine and original traditions attract local and foreign tourists. Food has become one of the main items of tourist experience. The reason of special interest towards Georgia alongside with gastronomic peculiarities is the intangible cultural heritage -Qvevri Wine listed by UNESCO. The chance is given to the tourism business representatives, tourism scholars, scientists, gastronomists, historians, representatives of culture and government authorities for participating in food programmes designed for sustainable tourism development of the county.

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Poster

Muslim Women Converts through the Ideological Eyes of Algerian Newspaper Discourse


  Zerrifi Meryem
  University of Mostaganem. Algeria

The discourse on Muslim women has been criticized in scientific research as being racist, sexist and ideological; especially for western media and mainly after the 9/11th attacks and the emergence of the phenomenon of Islamophobia. The manipulation of the discursive portrayal of Muslim women maintains the aggressive and the discriminatory opinions towards women belonging to Islam. Whereas; convert women who come from various backgrounds from the western world are cases that form a rich area of investigation that have been covered from a narrative perspective in which experiences of convert women are represented through stories telling journey to conversion to Islam. Muslim convert women have not been problematized in relation to the Algerian media discourse; yet, their omnipresence cannot be denied as a Muslim community. this research aims at demonstrating ideologies that are perpetuated along the Algerian media discourse; more precisely newspapers' discourse. This study based on FCDA investigates the discursive portrayal of female Muslim converts in Algerian newspapers' discourse to meet the objectives of this research, following the framework provided by Thomson (1991), articles collected from Algerian newspapers are analyzed with a specific focus on ideologies perpetuated about Muslim women converts.

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Poster

Information Support System for Ecological Sustainability in Georgia


  Davit Podiashvili
  Georgian Technical University, Georgia

Co-Author-Tamar Rostiashvili,Associate Professor, Faculty of Business Technologies, Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi, Georgia

Ecological sustainability is a critical issue for Georgian researchers. The survey conducted reveals the importance of environmental information in consumer evaluations. In the period of 2018-2019 about three thousand people participated in the survey. Business partners, customers, and the public representatives need to be supported by an ecological culture, a non-aggressive but consistent formation of thought elements, and an environmental education. As the survey results show the most effective sources of information and education in Georgia are the mass media, especially television. It is advisable to create prominent and comprehensive information projects in the media that can also attract budgetary resources. Methodological basis of the concept of environmental management that specifies Information Support System for Georgian commodity markets was formed. Almost all groups in the survey expressed their willingness to pay for an additional "green supplement".

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Video Presentation

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